A

Advertising investment

Monitoring advertising investment by volume and monetary value based on published fares.

Affinity (aff %)

Index which compares a specific group rating (target) against total rating. Formula: target rat% -------------------------- X 100 total rat%

Airing promotions

It refers to self-promotions.

Audience

Households or individuals exposed to TV, radio or other media programs. Audience measurements are expressed in percentages or in estimated numbers of households or individuals watching or listening to a program.

Audience composition

Demographic profile of a channel or program audience.

Audience fragmentation

Phenomenon where total audience gets broadly distributed among a significant number of programs.

Audience rating average

Average rating of an individual or household tuned in to a station or program during a specific period.

Audit

Verification which certifies procedures, methodologies and every kind of available quality controls.

Available audience

Total number of people who are really in a position to use any media at any time. This is operatively defined as those who are using specific media. (Example: PUT o PUR levels.)

Average

Central trend measure which expresses that which is typical in a variable. An arithmetic average is usually called media. See median.

Average time spent (ATS)

Average minutes used by each viewer to watch a program. Formula: minutes watched -------------------- total viewers

Average time viewed (ATV)

Average minutes viewed divided by the total of targeted individuals. Formula: viewed minutes --------------------- total of targeted individuals

B

Basic cable

Programming services supplied by a cable system at the lowest monthly price. These services typically include local TV signals, cable channels sponsored by advertisers and local access channels.

C

Cable penetration

Cable reach in households subscribed to cable service in any market. Typically expressed in percent of households with TV sets that are subscribed to a basic cable service.

CCMA

Comisión Central de Medición de Audiencia (Audience Measuring Central Committee.) Association in charge of supervising negotiations in the Argentine advertising market.

Census

Study in which each population member is surveyed and measured, usually taken every 10 years.

Channel loyalty

Common behavioral phenomenon of a collective audience in which the program audience tends to be disproportionately represented in the audience of other programs in the same channel. See audience duplication, heritage effect.

CIM

Consejo de Investigación de Medios (Media Investigation Council.) Association that supervises negotiations in the Mexican advertising market.

CLEMAT

Comisión de Licitación del Estudio de Medición de Audiencia de Televisión (Tender Commission for Television Audience Measurement Study.) Chilean association responsible for supervising negotiations in the advertising market in that country.

Coincidental interview

Research poll in which the pollster asks respondents what they are watching or listening to at the moment of the call. These coincidental interviews, based on probability samples, often establish a standard against which other rating methods are judged.

Coincidental phone

See coincidental

Confidence interval

In a probability sampling, this is the rank of values around the value of an estimated population (rating) with a probability to contain the real value of the population.

Conglomerate sample

Probability sample in which sample units, called conglomerates (e.g., census zones), are part of the sample at some stage of the process. See probability sample.

Correlation

Statistic measure which measures the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. This can range in value between +1.0 to -1.0, with 0 indicating no relationship.

Coverage

Households or individuals percentage receiving a particular TV signal in a specific geographical area. (Example: how far a TV signal can be watched.)

Coverage area

Geographical area where a TV signal can be received.

Coverage area

Geographical area which receives a signal sent by a TV channel.

CPM (cost per mille)

Measure which determines the cost of a TV commercial or advertising campaign for every 1000 members of an audience. The total cost for one or several commercials is divided by the projected audience expressed in thousands. For example, if the cost of a commercial is $50.000 and the projected audience is 4.606 (4.606.000 divided by 1000) then the CPM equals $10.86. CPMs are commonly used to compare the cost-efficacy of different advertising vehicles.

CPP (cost per rating point)

Measure expressing how much it costs to buy an audience represented by a rating point. The size of that audience, and therefore its cost, varies depending on the size of the market population on which the rating is based. It is used by most media planners in the development and assignment of budgets and establishing points of rating. Formula: cost by spot --------------- rating points

Cume (cumulative audience)

Known also as cume reach. It is the unduplicated total audience for a broadcast or series of broadcasts, programs, messages or periods, expressed as universe percentage. Each household or individual counts only once notwithstanding how many times they may have watched the broadcast. This sometimes refers to reach, or to unduplicated net audience or net reach. If we speak about number of households or individuals reached by a channel o station at least once during a specific period, this number is called circulation. See GRP reach.

Cumulated duplication

Size of a channel audience which has also been part of another channel?s audience, during a specific period. See exclusive cumulation.

D

Dairy

Form in which the respondent is asked to keep a written record of his television, radio or other media activities over a specific period. These diaries are sent to houses by mail to determine how households and people carried out such activities in the previous week.

Dairy

See dairy

Day part

A period of time, usually defined by certain hours of the day and days of the week (e.g., weekdays vs. weekends), which generally reflects the pattern of television programs, used to estimate audience size for the purpose of buying and selling advertising time. The comparison of audience estimates between dayparts can indicate differences in size and composition of the available audience. Some of the most common dayparts in Latin America: Morning (06:00-16:59) Early evening (17:00-18:59) Prime time (19:00-23:59) Late Night and Early Morning (24:00-30:00) Complete Day (06:00-30:00)

Demographics (demos)

A category of variables often used to describe audience composition. Common demographics include age, gender, SEL, TV presence, pay TV presence, head of household, etc.

Designed weight (dw%)

The weight of an individual in the sample must represent the entire universe.

DTH (directed to home)

A television technology which provides signals directly from a satellite to a house through a dish antenna. Known also as DBS.

Duplication/duplicated audience

See audience duplication.

E

E-CPM (effective cost per mille)

Cost to reach a thousand units in the audience. It is the measurement mechanism to assess and compare efficiency and relative cost between different media alternatives. Formula: investment --------------------- X 1000 reached people

Effective exposure

Media planning concept which stipulates the need for certain amount of exposure to an advertising message for it to be effective. Usually employed in combination with the term effective range.

Effective reach

Criterion established in number of times a specific audience was exposed to an advertising message that is remembered. For instance, if an advertising message was watched by 50% of women aged 18-34 (then 50% of them saw that message at least once) and through the study it was discovered that 20% of them saw that message 3 times and 10% saw it 3 or more times, and that the Effective Reach criterion is established as 3, then the Effective Reach is 30% (20% + 10%.) Even though the Total Reach was 50% of the target, the Effective Reach was only 30%.

Efficiency

Relationship between costs and message deliverance to the audience.

Exclusive cumulative audience

Total unduplicated audience that watches exclusively one channel within a specific time period. Also known as net reach.

Exposure

A person's physical contact (visual and/or audio) with commercial media or a message.

F

Fashion

A central tendency measure defined as the most frequent value in a distribution.

Fidelity

Rate obtained dividing rating by gross reach expressed in a percentage. The closer to one hundred, the more audience will remain in the event. Known also as permanence percentage. Formula: rating ------------------------- X 100 gross reach

Formula

GRP = frequency X reach

Formula

Total sum of each channel?s ratings.

Fragmentation

Term applied to the increasing number of subdivisions in an audience, which constitutes the total TV use. Fragmentation results from an increase in the number of possibilities of programs (example, free-to-air TV channels and/or cable and VCR use.)

Free-to-air television

Direct reception of TV signals. Also known as air signals.

Frequency

Average number of individuals or households watching a program, channel or advertising material during a specific time period, for example, a month. This number is reached by dividing GRP (gross rating points) by the unduplicated total audience (cume.) For example, if a group of programs has reached 30 GRP and a cume of 20, then the frequency average is 1.5 expositions per person or household.

Frequency distribution

A way of representing the number of times different values of a variable occur within a sample or population; for example, the percentage of individuals or households that are exposed to a program, channel or advertising material once, twice, three times, etc.

G

Genre

Type or categorization of a television program. Examples of program genre include: movies, news, sports, etc. There are also subgenres as: drama, comedy, action, etc. Also known as Typology.

Geodemographics

Type of variable which categorizes audiences by combining geographical and demographic factors. For example, organizing audiences by postal code with similar age and income.

GRP (gross rating point)

Gross impressions of a commercial hour expressed as a population percentage. GRP?s are commonly used to describe the general size or weight of a commercial campaign. One point of rating equals one per cent of the total potential audience.

H

Head of household

In television terms, it refers to the person who provides most of the household economic income.

Headend

The part of a cable system that receives TV signals from outside sources (e.g., off-the-air, satellite) and sends them through the wired distribution system. See cable system.

Home diary

Diary designed to register the consumption made by a household member or guest who watches television on a specific TV set. See diary, personal diary.

Household

Group of individuals occupying a house, apartment, etc.

Household with TV

Common unit of analysis in research ratings, any home equipped with a functioning TV set, excluding quarter groups. See quarter groups.

Housewife

In TV terms it refers to the person who makes the shopping decisions in the household.

HUT (households using television)

Percent of all households with television sets in the surveyed area, with one or more television sets in use during a specific period. The sum of the rating average at any period will be sometimes higher than HUT because some households have multiple television sets. If two programs are been watched in the same house, each program?s rating is counted, but just one on HUT. HUT is expressed as either the projected audience size or as a percent of the total number of households. In short, HUT is the sum of ratings of every channel based on the number of households. Formula: ratings ------------------ share (households)

I

IBOPE

Instituto Brasilero de Opinión Pública e Investigación Estadística (Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion and Statistical Research.) Founded in 1942, IBOPE was the first market research institute in Latin America. IBOPE?s principal product is information, which is used as a tool to guide the client?s decision process, while minimizing risks and maximizing results. IBOPE is the biggest and most diversified information provider of advertising and marketing, the media and the Internet, politics and government in Brazil.

Impressions

See gross impressions.

In-tab

Term describing the sample of households or persons actually used in tabulating or processing results.

Interview

Method to pick up oral data, both in person and by phone.

Interviewer

Researcher who performs the interview.

M

Measure

A procedure or device for quantifying objects (e.g., households, people) on variables of interest to the researcher.

Measurement

The process of assigning numbers to objects according to some rule.

Measurement device

Tool which electronically records a TV set channel changes but which only reads home information. These machines do not allow to obtain individual information.

Measurement techniques

Methods used to measure television audiences. The main methods are:

Median

A measure of central tendency defined as the middle point in every case.

Median

See Average.

Meter

See meter

Meter

A measuring device used to record the on-off and channel tuning condition of a TV set . See peoplemeter.

MMDS (Multichannel Multipointing Distribution System)

Television programming distributed by microwaves. Wireless cable TV.

MSO (Multiple System Operator)

A company owning more that one cable system.

Multiset household

A television household with more than one working television set.

N

Net audience

See cumulative or reach.

Net reach

See cumulative or reach.

Network

Organization that acquires or produces programs and usually distributes them on a national or regional level through member stations o cable systems.

Network rating

Rating attained by a network or a program in that network based on the total population or a specific target.

O

Optimization

Method to reach the best media plan derived from simulations of media programs.

Over-sampling

Putting together and tabulating a larger sample than the one needed to intensively study the sample subcategories. The over-sampling is also used to make up for a small sample when compared to a bigger one. Over-sampling procedures are justified for comparison needs.

Over-the-Air

Direct reception of TV signals. Known also as free-to-air TV.

P

Panel

A type of longitudinal study in which the same sample of individuals is studied throughout a time period. Meters are placed in the home panel. See cross-sectional, longitudinal, tendency.

Pay-per-view

Case in which customers must pay to watch any program or channel.

Penetration

Percentage of homes with television sets against the total homes in an area: the coverage the media or media vehicle has obtained in an area.

People meter

An electronic device that records which programs are being watched and is able to identify who is in the room watching TV. If the viewer must introduce information by pressing a button, it is called an active meter. If, on the contrary, it does not require the viewer?s effort, it is called passive meter.

Personal diary

Small notebook in which a person records his TV o radio consumption, usually during a week. Personal diaries are designed to accompany a person where media use may occur. See home diary.

Personal interview

Method by which the pollster collects information from the respondent where the contact is face to face. See interview.

Phone interview

A Q&A session conducted by phone. See coincidental interview.

Phone recall

Type of phone survey in which the pollster asks the respondent what he or she has listened to or watch in the recent past, generally the day before.

Population

The total number of people or households from which the probability sample is taken. Population membership must be clearly defined, usually by the geographical area where this person lives. See universe.

Post-purchase analysis

Assessment based on TV audience levels at the time the commercial was running. Post-purchase analysis is used to determine the real deliverance of an advertising purchase o to compare planification versus purchase.

Potential audience

Highest possible audience a channel is able to have in a determined period.

Premium channel

A programming service supplied by a cable system for a monthly fee which is above the one paid for basic cable.

Prime time

Peak hours in television audience, usually in the evening.

Probability sample

Type of sample in which each population member has knowledge and the same probability of being selected for the sample. Sometimes called random samples, probability samples allow for statistical deductions about precision in sample estimates. See confidence interval, confidence levels, sample error.

Program rating

A specific program average rating. See rating.

Program type

Program category usually based on similarities in program contents. See genre and typology.

Projected audience

Total size of an estimated audience in a population, based on information from the sample. Ratings can be determined applying universe estimates. See probable sample, universe.

Psychographic

A category of variable which makes distinctions among people based on their psychological characteristics, including opinions, interests and attitudes.

PUT (people using television)

Average percent of people within a demographic category in a surveyed area that is watching television during a specific period. In short, PUT is the sum of ratings for all channels based on individuals. Also known as the total TV rating.

Q

Qualitative research

Every systematic audience research that does not depend on measures or quantifications. Examples of this are group sessions and observation of the participants. Sometimes it is used to describe any research even if there was quantification.

R

Random sample

See probability sample.

Rate card (published fare)

A list of how much a station will charge for its commercial spots. Rate cards are sometimes incorporated in rating data in computer programs to administer stations inventaries.

Rating

In its basic sense, the percent of individuals or homes tuned in to a TV channel or program out of the total market population. For example, the percent of people within a given population group within the surveyed area in households with a television set who watch a specific program or channel. One point of rating equals 1% of the universe. There are different kinds of ratings. The most common ones are average audience, total audience and cumulative audience. Formula: minutes viewed (weighted) --------------------------------------- X 100 = Rat% possible minutes (weighted)

Ratings in thousands

Number of people or households (in thousands) that were exposed to television at a specific moment in relation to the universe.

Reach

Total number of unduplicated people or homes included in a station audience or advertising campaign over a specific period. Sometimes it is expressed as percent of the total market population. Known also as net reach cume. See cume, frequency.

Recall

Percent of audience that when surveyed is able to recall at least one message from a brand commercial a day after being exposed to that message. Recall results are considered as markers of the effectiveness of the advertising message. The technique of the ?day after? has also been used to measure the relative efficacy between media types as day TV versus night TV. This survey is conducted by phone. If respondents are directly asked it is aided recall; otherwise, it is unaided recall.

Recall

Method used to determine the audience in the last 24 hours based on the respondent memories, usually as part of a coincidental phone call.

Reinforcement sample

Supplementary sample used by a rating company in the event that the originally designed sample may be unsatisfactory due to low cooperation reasons.

Reliability

The extent to which a measurement method offers consistent results through time.

Rolling average

Rating levels based on the average of several successive samples. Having more sample data available, the oldest sample is cancelled from the average. The rolling average is less susceptible to a sample error.

ROS (run of schedule)

Procedure for broadcasting advertising spots in which the advertiser allows the TV station to broadcast a given spot at any point in the advertising schedule.

S

Sample

One or more elements (individuals, homes, etc.) selected from a population or universe to represent that population or universe. See probability sample.

Sample distribution

Frequency distribution which results from repeated samples of the same population.

Sample size

Number of households or individuals selected for a sample, or the number which gives usable information for the survey.

Sample weighting

A practice involving the giving of different mathematical weights to several subsets of the tabulated sample with the purpose of correcting different response percents among these subsets. Each weight is the size ratio of the subset in the population to its size in the sample.

Schedule

Spot group; daily hour and dates a commercial is programmed to run. Known also as spot.

Segmentation

Practice of dividing up the total market into subgroups, frequently related to the needs of a marketing plan or the population programming preferences. See targeted audience.

Share

In its simplest form, the percentage of persons or households tuned to a station or program out of all those using that medium. (For example, HUT percentage tuned to a particular station or program at a given hour. Share = Rating ÷ HUT.)

Spot

Spot group; the hour, day and date when advertisers are planning to show their commercials. Also known as schedule.

Spot

Commercial time units sold by TV channels.

Standard deviation

A measure of the variability in a frequency distribution.

Standard error

The standard deviation of a sampling distribution. It is the statistic used to make statements about the accuracy of estimates based on sample information. See confidence interval, confidence level, relative standard error.

Statistical significance

The point at which results from a sample deviate so far from what could happen by chance that they are thought to reflect real differences or phenomena in the population. By convention, significance levels are usually set at 0.05 or lower, meaning a result could happen by chance only 5 times in 100. See confidence level.

Sub-deliverance

Any free-to-air TV source which delivers a low rating at homes with pay TV or areas in which a TV commercial hour has a lower than average rating deliverance.

Surveyed area

Geographical area that provides a sample for a study.

Syndication

Selling a standardized product to many clients. Syndicated programs are generally recorded series available for broadcasting by individual stations. A syndicated program is available to stations in many different markets. A syndicated ratings reports is also sold to many users.

T

Target audience

Any well-defined subset of the total audience that an advertiser wants to reach with a commercial campaign, or a station wants to reach with a particular kind of programming.

Time period

Time interval, usually defined by day(s) and hour(s), no matter the broadcast programming. That is why audience researchers can talk about four-week average time periods, as opposed to pure program averages upon evaluating a TV station or analyzing audiences trends.

Time period average

An audience size in a time average during a specific time period.

Time period rating

Rating for a specific time interval such as 15 o 20 minutes, contrary to a specific program. See rating.

Total audience

All those who tune to a program for at least 5 minutes. Essentially, it is the cumulative audience for a long program or miniseries.

Trend analysis

A type of longitudinal survey design in which results from repeated independent samplings are compared over time.

Typology

Type or categorization of a television program. Examples of program genres include: films, news, sports, etc. There are also sub-genres such as: drama, comedy, action, etc. Also known as genre.

U

Unduplicated audience

The number of different persons or households in an audience over a specific period. See cume. Cumulative audience.

Unduplicated net audience

See Accumulated or Range.

Universe

Population selected for a study. It refers to the estimated number of households or individuals and is based on demographic, geographic and economic data as well as cable TV use, among others. See population.

Universe estimate

Estimate of households with a TV set and individuals in homes with a TV set.

V

Validity

The extent to which a method of measurement accurately quantifies the attribute it is supposed to measure.

Variable

Any well defined attribute or characteristic which varies from person to person, or thing to thing. See Demographic.

W

Weighted average

Statistic quantity calculated by multiplying each group value by an assigned weight, adding these products, and dividing up the total by the weights sum. For example, HUT is needed for the day part 9AM to 4:30PM. However, viewers in the profile report divide up that part of the day by two, 9AM at midday and midday to 4:30 PM. The HUT for 9AM at midday is 19 and the HUT for midday at 4:30PM is 29. As 9AM at midday is 3 hours, midday at 4:30PM is 4.5 hours, weighted average is done like this: (3.0 x 19) + (4.5 x 29) = 25 HUT for 9AM at 4:30PM --------------------- (3.0 + 4.5)

Weighted in-tab

The number of individuals in different demographic groups who would have provided usable information if response rates were equivalent. See sample weighting.

Weighting

The process of assigning mathematical weights in an attempt to correct over underrepresentation of some groups in the unweighted in-tab sample.

Z

Zapping

The practice of using a remote control device to avoid commercials or program content by rapidly changing channels. Often used interchangeably with zipping.